Patient-Level Simulation Model

Typically using random (stochastic) selection of patient characteristics and pathways. This approach requires simulating a large number of patients to estimate the mean outcomes and their distribution for the population  analysis.

Key features of patient-level simulation models include:

– Individual Patient Histories: The model allows for detailed recording of individual patient histories, capturing unique pathways and outcomes for each patient.

– Heterogeneity: It can account for first-order heterogeneity in the patient population, reflecting variations in patient characteristics and responses to interventions.

– Flexibility and Intuitiveness: These models are often considered more flexible and intuitive compared to cohort models, as they can adapt to various clinical scenarios and patient-specific factors.

Benefits over cohort models include the ability to:

– Capture Detailed Patient Variability: By simulating individual patients, the model can more accurately reflect the diversity within the patient population.

– Adapt to Complex Interventions: Patient-level simulations are better suited for modeling complex interventions that may have varying effects based on patient characteristics.

However, patient-level simulation models also have some drawbacks:

– Computational Requirements: These models can be computationally intensive, requiring significant processing power, especially when conducting sensitivity analyses.

– Time-Consuming: The detailed nature of the simulations and the need to simulate large numbers of patients can make these models time-consuming to develop and run.

Overall, patient-level simulation models provide a powerful tool for health economic evaluations, allowing for detailed and personalized analysis of interventions’ impacts on diverse patient populations.